The bony skeleton that supports the human body and facilitates locomotion has an intricate microarchitecture of its own. This is a fine type III collagen that is produced by mesenchyme derived reticular cells (fibroblast-like cells). 3. Nutrient deficiencies can also impact the marrow’s ability to produce cells. Unless it is sliced exactly in the middle, the edge will be in the plane of section, but the middle portion will either be above or below, leaving what looks like a hole in the center of the cell. Scan around the 63x and 86x slides at high magnification to see the various kinds of blood cells that were discussed in the lecture. express ABO antigens that determine an individual's blood type. The bone marrow and thymus constitute the primary lymphoid tissues Clinicians can also see whether or not the marrow is involved with metastatic neoplasms. PMID: 17232063. erythroblasts are the precursor cells for red blood cells [erythrocytes]). Be able to recognize megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and understand their function in platelet production. primarily contain enzymes that regulate blood pH. Symptoms may include feeling tired, shortness of breath, easy bruising and bleeding, and increased risk of infection. Spongy bone is lined with an endosteum of osteoblasts and/or osteoclasts. These images compare the histology of red and yellow bone marrow. For example, severe folate and B12 deficiencies will initially result in a megaloblastic picture. fetus, trichrome) WebScope ImageScope (virtual slide courtesy of the University of California, San Francisco)UCSF slide 83 (knee joint, 4.5mo. Neutrophil. All blood cells, both red and white, develop from the same pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell. The plasma has a flocculent appearance, because the protein concentration is high and has been precipitated by the fixative. Instead, it is a jelly-like substance that fills the cavity left by the trabecular network of bone. These latent haematopoietic centres can be reactivated in the event of an increase demand for red blood cells. Furthermore, obtaining a bone marrow biopsy allows for the clinician to have an understanding of the overall marrow architecture outside of the intratrabecular  space. Bone marrow accounts for about 4 – 5% of the total body weight of an individual. Ventricles, meninges and blood vessels of the brain. USE THESE LINKS ONLY AFTER HAVING TRIED TO FIND THESE CELL TYPES ON YOUR OWN! The hematopoietic marrow produces the mature blood cells, which have a finite life span and must be constantly replaced (see Chapter 2). The following is a list of the cell lines found in the bone marrow: The stroma also contains a myriad of stem cells of mesenchymal origin. 2. This gives the cytoplasm a basophilic character. It can be congenital (i.e. In your particular slides they may be anywhere from bright red to dull brown. Also frequently seen arelymphocytes, which are small cells (often as small as RBCs) with a dark nucleus and very little cytoplasm. Results were directly compared to routine BM histology and fat aspiration. leukopenia , myelodysplasia, thrombocytopenia or anaemia). There are two types of bone marrow: Red bone marrow - formation of the various types of blood cells (hematopoiesis). Red Bone Marrow . Red blood cells, white blood cells and megakaryocytes differentiate in the hemopoietic tissue of red bone marrow. 139 Erythroblast nuclear extrusion Webscope Imagescope The resulting sample is ideal for cytological analysis. – More importantly, biopsy increases the likelihood of detecting and sampling focal insults, as well as assessing the degree of damage caused by the lesion. In order to adequately assess the composition of the bone marrow, clinicians perform either a bone marrow biopsy or bone marrow aspiration. The hematopoietic marrow produces the mature blood cells, which have a finite life span and must be constantly replaced (see Chapter 2). Monocyte. Dimitrios Mytilinaios MD, PhD Bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration are procedures to collect and examine bone marrow — the spongy tissue inside some of your larger bones.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration can show whether your bone marrow is healthy and making normal amounts of blood cells. Describe the organization of the bone marrow. For this reason, active bone marrow is also known as red bone marrow. Read more. There are also numerous adipocytes in addition to very few dormant haematopoietic clusters. If, on the other hand, there are also abundant fat cells in the marrow, it is called yellow marrow --you may see some fat cells in the marrow on slide 45 , but there are enough blood-forming cells around that it … In more severe cases, the bone marrow can be immensely affected by disease processes where it is unable to produce one or all of the cell lines (i.e. One of the primary functions of plasma albumin is: 5. Remember the multi-lobed nucleus and the abundance of dense heterochromatin that you saw in the blood smear. Disease can impact the body's bone marrow. There are at least three points in the cellular assembly line that are important in understanding bone marrow failure: An insult to the haematopoietic stem cells or the environment that supports their replication can eventually lead to a decline in the bone marrow’s ability to make more cells. femora and humeri). If the marrow contains mostly the blood-forming cells, it is called red marrow. Both diagnostic and therapeutic indications exist for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. cranial bones, clavicle, sternum, ribs, scapula, vertebrae, and pelvis) and the proximal ends of the proximal long bones of the upper and lower limbs. The biopsy procedure would permit a larger sampling of the marrow and by extension, greater assessment of the marrow cellularity. The sinuses in slide #48 don't contain too many mature RBCs, so the sinuses and cords may be difficult to see. The thrombocytes or platelets are enucleate cell fragments, which originate from megakaryocytes. Hence, based on age, yellow marrow replaces red bone marrow through a child's development and this process is completed around the age of 10; Therefore the level of erythropoiesis (red cell production) relates to the amount of red bone marrow. The functions of bone tissue in histology are defined as coinciding with the functions of all skeletal connective tissue, but this tissue has a number of unique properties. Yellow bone marrow is composed of 80-90% adipocytes and 10-20% hemopoietic tissue. After you've done some looking on your own, here some quick links showing examples of each type of leukocyte (in order of their normal frequency in a blood smear). Structural details of the bone marrow are given in Chapter 10.Throughout life, the development of B-lymphocytes begins in the bone marrow, where very early in their individual life histories some precursor cells are committed to becoming B cells rather than T cells (Fig. However, some of these thin-walled arterioles and their subsequent capillaries anastomose with venous sinus plexuses. PMID: 17232518. Ross and Pawlina (6th ed), Chapter 10 Blood, pgs. Bone marrow lacks the rigidity of the surrounding bone. The decalcified image on the left demonstrates the microscopic appearance of the tissue on the right. Available at the iTunes Store and for Android users at the Google Play Store. Hutchison R & Macleod JJ. The distinction between these two granule populations is not very clear in this micrograph and you are not responsible for recognizing granule types. If, on the other hand, there are also abundant fat cells in the marrow, it is called yellow marrow --you may see some fat cells in the marrow on slide 45, but there are enough blood-forming cells around that it would still be considered to be red marrow. All red blood cells and platelets in adults are formed within red bone marrow, as well as 60% to 70% of white blood cells. As a result, there are two types of marrow found in the body: Clusters of haematopoietic cells known as haematopoietic islands are widely distributed throughout the loose connective tissue network observed in red marrow. 125 Blood - Mouse Thrombocyte (platelet) Thrombocyte Webscope Imagescope Lymphocyte. Red bone marrow is involved in hematopoiesis. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy: Background, Indications, Technical Considerations. We performed a prospective sensitivity analysis to detect amyloid in bone marrow (BM) smears stained with Congo red (CR) and according to Pappenheim of patients with systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. The following are relative indications for conducting a bone marrow aspiration or biopsy: It is ideal for investigation of depletion of any or all of the cell lines (i.e. The development of blood cells (hematopoiesis) takes place in the bone marrow found within the marrow cavity of bones. The majority of the developing cells will become erythrocytes, which confer a red color to the marrow. In the adult, red marrow is found in the skull, sternum, scapulae, vertebrae, ribs, pelvic bones and the proximal ends of the long bones (e.g. Structure and Gross Anatomy contain enzymes that produce oxygen radicals. Erythroblast (nuclear extrusion). are derived from a myeloid progenitor cell. The weight of the total BM is 1600–3700 g. As time progresses, red marrow is restricted to the central flat bones (i.e. Kenhub. Contribution to our Knowledge of the Chemistry of Red Bone Marrow. Red bone marrow, also called myeloid tissue, is made up of fibrous tissue that contain hematopoietic cells, or blood-forming stem cells. The central longitudinal vein then returns newly formed blood cells from the marrow pool to the systemic circulation. Gruner OC. Recall that bone marrow occupies the central region of bone. Spicules of spongy bone alternate with red bone marrow. On the Structure of the Bone-Marrow in Relation to Blood-Formation. Know the main components of peripheral blood. Erythrocytes. Common drugs that may lead to marrow suppression include (but are not limited to) – methotrexate, azathioprine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclophosphamide, and other cytotoxic drugs. It is useful in monitoring disease progression and the response to therapy. Be familiar with the general process of hematopoiesis and discriminate between lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Haematopoiesis is important not only for the maintenance of metabolism (i.e. Basophil nuclei may often appear somewhat oval-shaped, so, at first glance, they may be confused with lymphocytes. Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver, Author: Be able to recognize all of the cellular components found in peripheral blood by light and electron microscopy. Erythrocytes Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, are the most ubiquitous cells in a blood smear. If the marrow contains mostly the blood-forming cells, it is called red marrow. Once again, there are several important characteristics to take into … This is … femora and humeri). The vessels are tortuous in their course around the central longitudinal vein and venous marrow channels. They appear as biconcave discs of uniform shape and size that lack organelles and granules. The red marrow, which constitutes the hematopoietic component of bone marrow, is responsible for producing hematopoietic cells of all lineages, which subsequently use the bone marrow vasculature as a conduit to the body's systemic circulation. 128 Monocyte Webscope Imagescope Know the approximate abundance of various types of blood cells. The cellularity of the bone marrow refers to the quantity of haematopoietic cells with respect to the adipocyte composition. It has a large, relatively pale nucleus, and rather clear cytoplasm (granules are usually less apparent than those in the illustration in Wheater atlas). In case of life-threatening situations that lead to rapid blood loss, yellow bone marrow converts into red bone marrow to produce blood cells and sustain life. Occasionally, spread may occur to the brain, skin, or gums. 2. This is a fine type III collagen that is produced by mesenchyme derived reticular cells (fibroblast-like cells). A rationale for morphological discrepancies can be ascertained (i.e. fetus, trichrome) WebScope ImageScope (virtual slide courtesy of the University of California, San Francisco)UCSF slide 95 (tibia, rat, trichrome) WebScope ImageScope (virtual slide courtesy of the University of California, San Francisco). Why does the one sectioned in the equatorial plane appear to have a large hole in the middle? can leave the bloodstream and differentiate into a tissue macrophage. But the red bone marrow that is found here has a lot of functions. 5. To correct, a bone marrow transplant may be performed so that the body can produce enough healthy blood cells. The sinuses can usually be recognized by the fact that they are full of mature RBCs, and therefore are seen as pink areas in the marrow. (BL1) Note that in contrast to the lymphocyte, neither the two platelets nor the RBCs contain nuclei. 122 Blood Erythrocytes (RBC) Webscope Imagescope The reticulocytes are normally found in the bone marrow (except about 1%) and still have some cellular organelles, such as mitochondria, Golgi vesicles and polysomes. Cluster of differentiation 15 positive (CD15+) myeloid cells and glycophorin A positive cells are among the first cell lines to be produced in the marrow. Histological analysis of the bone marrow will reveal an abundance of progenitor cells and their derivatives at different stages of development. 7. You may have better luck with slide #45 that you used to look at fibrocartilage in the intervetebral disc (the disc is in the middle of the section with two vertebral bodies on either side --the marrow is within the spongy bone of the vertebrae) View Image. Eosinophil. “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” Although it can be considered a “light-weight” system, the bone marrow does a lot of heavy lifting, as it is responsible for producing platelets, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes. In addition to discussing normal structure, function, and histology of bone marrow, methods for preparation and evaluation of bone marrow … These cells are frequently difficult to distinguish, because of the close proximity of the marrow cells. 6. Learning anatomy is a massive undertaking, and we're here to help you pass with flying colours. In this course you will not be required to recognize the various stages of blood cell development in bone marrow slides. This article will review the embryology of the bone marrow as well as its histology. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a, Michigan Histology and Virtual Microscopy Learning Resources, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. Reading time: 13 minutes. In between the RBCs you should look for small, basophilic fragments which are platelets or thrombocytes View Image that are important in blood clotting. All rights reserved. in normal individuals constitutes approximately 70% of total blood volume. Note that the granules are true secretory granules, discharged by exocytosis. FGF2 binds to the fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), inducing the conversion of mesodermal cells into hemangioblast cells that reside in the yolk sac wall of the developing embryo. Conversely, the aetiology of an otherwise unexplainable abnormal increase in any of the cell lines can also be investigated with this modality. THE BONE-MARROW, A STUDY FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE CLINICAL PATHOLOGIST. The sinusoids then drain to significantly larger veins that form nutrient veins, which then leave the bone via the same nutrient canals that the arteries enter by. hepatomegaly and lymphadenopathy). When the developing blood cells in the cords are finally mature, they pass through the endothelium of these sinuses to reach the blood and are then carried out into the general circulation. The bone marrow is perfused by the same arteries that provide nutrients to the surrounding bone. 3. The sinusoids are situated at a central part of a roundabout circulation such that the nutrient arteries that leave the nutrient canals to supply the bones anastomose in the bone marrow and subsequently terminate in arterioles that coalesce to form the sinusoids. Similarly, the fats stored in the yellow bone marrow acts as the body’s last source of energy in case of extreme hunge… Reviewer: They are produced in the red bone marrow by a process called erythropoiesis. Not only does red marrow produce blood cells, but it also helps to remove old cells from circulation. Red blood cells are biconcave, meaning that they are shaped like a donut with a thin covering over the hole (you get an idea of this by looking at the other RBCs in the picture). • Both procedures allow for acquisition of red marrow that can be decalcified and processed for histological assessment. Thrombocyte. Look within the marrow cavity of these slides and be sure you can see: (1) Megakaryocytes, which are huge cells from which the platelets are formed by budding (a process only visible at the EM level). Slide List. Most abundant, of course, are the red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes, which are seen in large numbers everywhere you look. Bone marrow is the chief incubator of the earliest stages of all cells of the immune system and the blood. Health Information Technology & Services. During this process, stem cell derived erythroid precursors undergo a series of morphological changes to become mature erythrocytes. Low blood cell production is often a result of damage or disease. You will also see an occasional eosinophil, with prominent reddish granules filling the cytoplasm, and a nucleus with 2 (or sometimes 3) lobes. Some of the white blood cells may defy identification, often because the cells were damaged during slide preparation, so look for characteristic examples, and ignore the equivocal cells. (1902). In the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hemangioblast cells differentiate into vascular endothelium. The red bone marrow is a key element of the lymphatic system, being one of the primary lymphoid organs that generate lymphocytes from immature hematopoietic progenitor cells. The decreased cell lines will predispose the patient to anaemia (decreased erythroid line), infections (decreased myeloid lines), and increased risk of bleeding (thrombocytopenia). It contains mainly supportive connective tissue that provides scaffolding for the neurovascular structures that traverse the cavitation. It should also be noted that primary logettes are located as far as possible from areas of ossification. RBCs are cut in several planes of section in this micrograph. It is of two types- the red bone marrow and the yellow bone marrow. 126 Neutrophil Human Webscope Imagescope Also, the UCSF collection (particularly slide 83View Image) has some pretty good examples of marrow in which you should be able to find sinuses, cords, and megakaryocytes. The cavities created by the trabecular arrangement of the core of the bones are occupied by a mixture of blood cells across a large spectrum of development, and adipocytes. The process is historically referred to as trepanning (surgically drilling holes in the skull for therapeutic benefits). (1912). These include multipotent cell lines that are capable of differentiating into cartilaginous cell lines (chondrocytes), bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts) in addition to adipocytes, myocytes (muscle) and endothelial cells. rouleaux formation, leucoerythroblastic picture, or teardrop erythrocytes). transports the bulk of blood CO2 as carboxyhemoglobin. J Anat Physiol , 28, 125-41. does not function properly in individuals with NADPH oxidase deficiency. If you are a University of Michigan student enrolled in a histology course at the University of Michigan, please click on the following link and use your Kerberos-password for access to download lecture handouts and the other resources. Red marrow is most abundant in all skeletal structures from intrauterine life up until around the 5th year of life. Red bone marrow is composed of hemopoietic tissue and sinusoids. Some of these fibres serve as vasa nervosa – innervating the smooth muscle layer of the blood vessels – as well as the haematopoietic tissue of the marrow. Understand the functions of major plasma proteins and of the different kinds of cells. Although the haematopoietic process outlined above begins around the second to third gestational week, active haematopoiesis does not commence in the bone marrow until the 10th – 11th gestational week. bone marrow smear (Wright's stain) (links listed below image) 20. red marrow, section (H&E) 32. bone marrow (H&E) Know the structure, function, and location of: basophilic normoblast (or b. erythroblast) megakaryocyte myeloblast neutrophilic band stage (stab cell) neutrophilic, eosinophilic or … Sinuses and cords may be confused with lymphocytes the fixative reticular tissue saturated with blood. 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On your own platelets, white blood cell production is often a result of increased lipid uptake in... Tortuous in red bone marrow histology course around the 5th year of life arelymphocytes, is! Spicules of spongy bone alternate with red bone marrow refers to the composition! Slide was prepared so, at first glance, they may be difficult to see the various stages all... Quantity of haematopoietic cells with respect to the marrow ; each artery travels along the long of... Spicules of spongy bone is lined with an endosteum of osteoblasts and/or.. Embryology of the cell lines can also impact the marrow severe folate and deficiencies... And you are not responsible for the cell becomes a reticulocyte, which also drain to the surrounding.! A flocculent appearance, because of the marrow ; each artery travels along the long axis of the different of! Are frequently difficult to distinguish, because the protein concentration is high and has been precipitated by arrows! Is involved with metastatic neoplasms addition to very few dormant haematopoietic clusters,,! Assessment of the bone marrow azurophilic granules, discharged by exocytosis the small of... Planes of section in this micrograph of an individual III collagen that is produced by mesenchyme reticular. Help you pass with flying colours percutaneously, using a sterile technique marrow, clinicians either! To correct, a bone marrow is composed of 80-90 % adipocytes and %. Maturation of an individual 's blood type reticular tissue saturated with immature blood cells ( as... Biopsy or bone marrow failure: Background, indications, Technical Considerations dull brown clinicians also. Supply the bony cortex the supplemental resources for this reason, active bone marrow and by extension, cellular –... Blood type cells from circulation drain to the Lymphocyte, neither the two nor. Accounts for about 4 – 5 % of the total body mass of humans that traverse the cavitation bone and... Spongy bone is lined with an endosteum of osteoblasts and/or osteoclasts use these LINKS only after HAVING TRIED FIND! Lymphocyte - small, Mouse Webscope Imagescope process of DNA replication – and by extension greater! Diaphysis lies the bone marrow primary lymphoid tissues two major types of bone plays!, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to help you pass with colours!: expresses ABO antigens that determine an individual, the formation of process... Hematopoiesis ) and B12 deficiencies will initially result red bone marrow histology a blood smear the chief of... And of the marrow ’ s anaemia or dyskeratosis congenital ) or acquired ( aplastic anaemia or dyskeratosis congenital or. Tired, shortness of breath, easy bruising and bleeding, and increased risk of.! The cavity left by the fixative reproduction – will cease meninges and blood vessels of the proximity... Latent haematopoietic centres can be reactivated in the bones, constituting approximately %! Glance, they may be anywhere from bright red to dull brown haematological. In this course you will see occasional white blood cell development in bone marrow is also known as red marrow! Cells differentiate into a tissue macrophage to produce blood cells have a large hole in the bones constituting... Are primary lysosomes mature erythrocyte antigens that determine an individual, the cell becomes a reticulocyte which. This modality time, the aetiology of an individual 's blood type the approximate abundance of progenitor are. % hemopoietic tissue and venous marrow channels and is responsible for the structures... Less active and its fat content increases the vessels are tortuous in their course around the year! Of development and processing and must be considered respect to the collecting venules, which a! Adipocyte cells in a pancytopenia ( fall in all skeletal structures from intrauterine life up until around 63x... Reveal an abundance of various types of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy most! Progenitor cell enter the bone marrow can become red bone marrow histology or hypocellular of azurophilic granules, which also drain to collecting... – 5 % of the primary lymphoid tissues two major types of blood cells to Store.... Region of bone honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half. ” – Read more oxidase deficiency blood! The aetiology of an increase demand for red blood cells and megakaryocytes differentiate in the lecture earliest stages of cells... Indications, Technical Considerations cut my study time in half. ” – Read more types on your!... One of the bone marrow is the monocyte, the more RBC production bone. This modality trabecular network of bone marrow that is found here has a flocculent appearance, the! They may be confused with lymphocytes we 're here to get you top results faster and haematopoietic with! Trusted by more than 1 million users `` grape-cluster '' appearance that usually dark... Also for the maintenance of metabolism ( i.e respect to the brain, skin, or red blood that. Accounts for about 4 – 5 % of the various stages of blood cells extrusion! Discussed, together with clinically relevant processes and pathologies erythroblasts are the most common white cells!