(b) Quartz is not sparkly and has a vitreous, or glassy, luster. Match. Then determine the texture of the rock and based on the two, identify t he rock name. Irregular fracture is a standard term for fractures that do not exhibit any of the qualities of the other fracture types. Minerals are identified on the basis of their physical properties, which have been described in the the previous section. These have the polyatomic phosphate ion, (PO4)3–, as the anion. 8 testing tools. Are the individual crystals shiny or dull? Students are not expected to know the answers to the Prior Knowledge Questions.] It's the hardest material known. Figure 3 shows one sample of quartz that is colorless and another quartz that is purple. The solid earth is made of rocks, which are made of minerals. PLAY. D 9. Measuring it is the first step in mineral identification. Minerals that are the same color may have a different colored streak. Examples include iron oxides such as hematite, Fe2O3 and magnetite, Fe3O4, and pyrolusite, MgO. Halite, NaCl, is a halide mineral. In between are a half-dozen other categories of luster that assess the degree of a mineral's transparency and reflectivity. In the minerals tables that accompanies this section, the minerals are grouped according to their luster and color. Color is often useful, but should not be relied upon. It is widely used in jewelry making and as an industrial abrasive. Luster describes the way light reflects off of the surface of the mineral. Figure 2. Minerals that are harder will scratch the place and won't leave a streak. This mineral is shiny, very soft, heavy, and gold in color, and is actually gold. Massis the amount of … Make note if it displays any other special optical effects, such as iridescence or changes in color. Another way to test magnetism is to see if your specimen attracts a compass needle. Or Quartz? A mineral is a naturally formed crystal. For example, the sulfides are based on the sufur ion, S2–. What is the mineral’s color? A special property that shows up in some sample of plagioclase feldspar is its tendency to exhibit striations on cleavage surfaces. You'll need a fresh mineral surface and a source of strong, clear light to examine it. Mineral Identification Key by Alan Plante, Donald Peck and David Von Bargen, Mineralogical Society of America. 1. When a mineral with no cleavage is broken apart by a hammer, it fractures in all directions. Study Flashcards On Geology-Mineral Identification Quiz at Cram.com. Type the name under Mineral name in … The density of an object depends on its mass and its volume. In introductory geology, the key fracture types to remember are irregular, which most minerals exhibit, and conchoidal, seen in quartz. Be careful, though. Streak is the color of a mineral’s powder. To compare the hardness of two minerals see which mineral scratches the surface of the other. The Rock Key is much better for his input than it otherwise would have been. Always check for luster on a fresh surface; you may need to chip off a small portion to expose a clean sample. STUDY. The final step in mineral identification is to take your list of characteristics and consult … Chrysotile has splintery fracture. A cleavage surface is formed when the mineral is broken. zoe_branch1. Ruby & Sapphire – These precious gemstones are the same mineral, corundum. You know then that the mineral’s hardness is between 5 and 6. Geology 2 Lab 1 Mineral Identification KEY The Purpose of this lab is to practice identifying minerals by systematically observing their physical properties. Minerals may have characteristic fractures (Figure 9). Calcite is easy to identify even without testing the reaction to HCl, by its hardness, luster and cleavage. A look at the different physical characteristics of minerals and how to use those characteristics to identify samples. Identification Mineral identification is a process of elimination based on determinations of physical properties. Fizz refers to the effervescent reaction of certain carbonate minerals in the presence of an acid like vinegar. All rocks except obsidian and coal are made of minerals. Standard names for luster include metallic, glassy, pearly, silky, greasy, and dull. Gently touch the tip of your tongue to a fresh face of the mineral, then spit it out. To identify your mineral, you'll need a streak plate or something like it. … Fine grains are smaller and usually cannot be identified without using a magnifier. It may break in sheets (one cleavage), splinters or prisms (two cleavages), cubes or rhombs (three cleavages) or something else. 1. Write. Therefore, elements purified and crystallized in a laboratory do not qualify as minerals, unless they have also been found in nature. Student Exploration: Graphing Skills Vocabulary: bar graph, line graph, negative relationship, pie chart, positive relationship, scale, scatter plot, variable Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.)1. Close observation and perhaps a magnifying glass are all you need for this step in the mineral identification process. A magnifier is also handy, but not required. A mineral may have good cleavage in one or two directions but fracture in another direction. All silicate minerals are built of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra (SiO4)4– in different bonding arrangements which create different crystal lattices. There are two complicating factors to remember here: (1) minerals do not always form nice crystals when they grow, and (2) a crystal face is different from a cleavage surface. Luster. Many minerals break along flat planes or cleavages. Flashcards. Streak describes the color of a finely crushed mineral. MINERAL IDENTIFICATION FLOW CHART Another important mineral identification technique is to determine a mineral's hardness. Minerals are classified according to their chemical properties. Use this quiz to check your understanding and decide whether to (1) study the previous section further or (2) move on to the next section. This can be tested by seeing if a small magnet responds to the mineral. Composition One simple way to classify luster is based on whether the mineral is metallic or non-metallic. As you read through the tables, you can click on the images of minerals to see a larger version of the photo. Carbonate minerals tend to dissolve relatively easily in water, especially acid water, and natural rain water is slightly acid. Mohs Scale of Hardness - 8 mineral samples with different hardness rating, glass plate, nail, penny, Mohs Scale 3. EPICENTER LAB #1 Use the mineral identification key (see Figure 1. Students are not expected to know the answers to the Prior Knowledge Questions.] 24) to identify a mineral that is nonmetallic, dark colored, harder than glass, lacks cleavage, and is green in color. Complete, up-to-date, mineral database containing 4,714 mineral species descriptions and comprehensive picture library of images. Most minerals in the earth’s crust and mantle are silicate minerals. Some minerals have other unique properties, some of which are listed in Table 3. This outcome gives you the background needed to understand the terms used in identifying minerals. Identify minerals based on their physical characteristics. This is the evolution of the original text by Dana, first published in 1848, and is to this day the classic used in introductory mineralogy courses in university. The number of cleavages is the number or directions in which the mineral cleaves. Grain Size: Coarse grains are visible to the naked eye, and the minerals can usually be identified without using a magnifier. Real gold, as seen in Figure 2, is very similar in color to the pyrite in Figure 1. Some minerals, such as quartz, form smooth curved surfaces when they fracture. It may take several guesses to get it right. In this activity, you will use an identification key for the minerals that you described above. It is the hardest mineral on Earth, second to diamond. Flashcards. Mining Matters is a charitable organization dedicated to bringing knowledge and awareness about Canada's geology and mineral resources to students, educators and the public. Luster describes the reflection of light off a mineral’s surface. Minerals are naturally occurring, inorganic solids with a definite chemical composition and a crystal lattice structure. Density describes how much matter is in a certain amount of space: density = mass/volume. Mineral Identification Observe and measure the properties of a mineral sample, and then use a key to identify the mineral. Minerals can be identified by their physical characteristics. First, you need to become familiar with the physical properties of minerals and how to recognize them. Scratch your mineral across the streak plate with a scribbling motion, then look at the results. A mineral's magnetism can be another identifying characteristic in some instances. Mineral Identification Although nearly 2,500 minerals are known to occur within Earth's crust, most are rare with only about 100 occurring in abundance. Carefully break the mineral and observe the shapes and angles of the pieces. Mineral Identification Keywords: explore,learning,gizmo,answers,mineral,identification Created Date: 10/8/2020 12:14:02 PM Explore Learning Gizmo Answers Mineral Identification explore learning gizmos answer keys provides a comprehensive and comprehensive pathway for students to see progress after the end of each module. Garnet Garnet is a group of silicate minerals with six distinct varieties. Diamonds are popular gemstones because the way they reflect light makes them very sparkly. Learn how to identify similar-looking rocks using the Moh's hardness scale. Cleavage surfaces can be distinguished by how they consistently reflect light, as if polished, smooth, and even. Mineralogists have special terms to describe luster. With a Mohs scale, anyone can test an unknown mineral for its hardness. This section will introduce you to minerals. Other Properties Mineral White 1-Cleavage Earthy or pearly luster. Cleavage can also be described as perfect, good, or poor. -1-MINERAL IDENTIFICATION KEY Minerals with Metallic Luster Hardness Streak Cleavage Gravity Other Properties Chemical Composition Specific Mineral 1 - 5.5 Yellowish- None 3.5 - 4 Massive, coatings, botryoidal crusts, earthy Limonite Figure 5. We will emphasize your ability to observe and test for these properties over your ability to merely name the mineral, although that is the overall goal. Many minerals are colored by chemical impurities. c. Minerals’ physical properties can change very quickly. The Mica Group is the name given to a group of silicate minerals that have silicon and oxygen as their two major components. To see mineral cleavage, hold the mineral up beneath a strong light and move it around, move it around some more, to see how the different sides reflect light. _____ FIGURE 1. Through trial and observation, you can determine your mineral's hardness, a key identification factor. Print Free Rock & Mineral Identification Flow Charts Hand lenses, streak plates and identification information help you find the name of each rock in your new kit. Andrew Alden is a geologist based in Oakland, California. Why do you need to run several tests before you can identify a mineral with 100 certainty? Identifying luster takes a little practice. Every other color, including blue, is called sapphire. High School Science Olympiad Mineral Collection - Designed for students competing in the Science Olympiad mineral identification competition at the middle and high school levels. Gold (Au), native copper (Cu), and diamond and graphite, which are made of carbon, are all native element minerals. To identify a mineral, you look at it closely. What is its shape? There are 26 mineral samples to identify. The Mohs scale is low-tech but time-tested. Spell. This outcome gives you the background needed to understand the terms used in identifying minerals. To check streak, scrape the mineral across an unglazed porcelain plate (Figure 5). The Mineral Identification Key: Step 1: Is the Luster Metallic or Submetallic? Use the largest mineral sample you can find. Learning the basics of mineral identification is easy. Mineral Identification Worksheet Part 1: Recording Observations In the chart below, record your observations of each test for the seven minerals. It’s an awesome way to really learn to identify … Found in silver rich deposits as lead grey to black tarnished, soft, metallic pseudocubic crystals or elongatic prismatic crystals with rounded corners commonly associated with Silver. Hardness is measured on the 10-point Mohs scale, which is essentially a scratch test. A mineral that naturally breaks into perfectly flat surfaces is exhibiting cleavage. This mineral collection kit also includes an identification key, a description of each mineral specimen, various hands-on activity suggestions, a nail to test hardness, a streak plate to test color, and a magnifier to examine the luster and other textures within each mineral. Find a mineral that has properties that match Sample A. Make note of a mineral that is noticeably light or heavy for its size. But after a while you notice regularities, become familiar with the usual suspects, make some productive mistakes, and get better at it until it becomes easy and fun. Have a pen and paper or a computer handy to record your notes. Another special property is magnetism. Observe and measure the properties of a mineral sample, and then use a key to identify the mineral. Color: a. Halite breaks between layers of sodium and chlorine to form cubes with smooth surfaces (Figure 6). A mineral may exhibit 100 cleavage surfaces parallel to each other. View Mineral_Identification_SE_Key.pdf from SCIENCE 201 at University of South Carolina. Quartz, for example, may be clear, white, gray, brown, yellow, pink, red, or orange. Different types of non-metallic luster are described in Table 1. The Mohs hardness scale is based 10 reference minerals, from talc the softest (Mohs hardness of 1), to diamond the hardest (Mohs hardness of 10). 11)Many other more difficult tests can be performed once students understand the basic principles of identification. Beware of color until you've learned what colors to trust. It is often useful to first determine if a mineral has a metallic luster. Fracture is a break in a mineral that is not along a cleavage plane. Anhydrite, CaSO4, is a sulfate. First, you need good light and a hand lens or magnifying glass. Browse mineral identification key resources on Teachers Pay Teachers, a marketplace trusted by millions of teachers for original educational resources. At a glance, calcite and quartz look similar. Student Exploration: Mineral ID Answer Key Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, luster, mass, mineral, Learning mineral identification is like learning to cook. Now you're ready to begin identifying your mineral. Mineral Identification Lab. Together, the chemical formula (the types and proportions of the chemical elements) and the crystal lattice (the geometry of how the atoms are arranged and bonded together) determine the physical properties of minerals. Answer the question(s) below to see how well you understand the topics covered in the previous section. They are also classified on the basis of their hardness and their cleavage or fracture. Dolomite, found in marble, will fizz actively if dropped in a small bath of acid, for example. Figure 8. Calcite, CaCO3, and dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2, are carbonate minerals. Cleavage describes the way a mineral breaks. Sort minerals into the correct mineral class. 2019 Mineral Identification Answer Key Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, luster, mass, mineral, streak, volume Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) Greasy luster looks similar to the luster of solidified bacon grease. One reason gemstones are beautiful is that the cleavage planes make an attractive crystal shape with smooth faces. Hematite, for example, will leave a red-brown streak. PLAY. Minerals are inorganic compounds that occur naturally in the earth. Alan's advice has made this web version of the Rock Key a much better document. Recall that a mineral is defined as naturally occurring. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! How to Identify Rocks and Minerals By Jan C. Rasmussen (Revised from a booklet by Susan Celestian) 2012 Donations for reproduction from: Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold Foundation Maybe it's graphite? These are based on the sulfide ion, S2–. 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